• Born in Vilna, 1924
  • Father and uncle in confection manufacturing business, making chocolate and waffles
  • Family lived in Vilna Ghetto from August to Nov. 1941.
  • Nov 11, 1941, Nazis came to take many Jews to killing fields of Punar.
  • Miriam walked away from group. To this day, she does not know why she was not caught. Maybe because she was blond.
  • Fled Vilna and escaped into surrounding forests.
  • Traveled at night, slept in hiding during the day.
  • Met her future husband Simon in the forest.
  • Met up with others in the forest, originally all Jews and later Russian soldiers joined. There were 22 in their group of Partisans at first.
  • They built shelters in the ground and organized attacks against the Nazis
  • They used dynamite to destroy trains and attack camps of Nazi soldiers.
  • Miriam’s father’s family was very Zionistic. Many had left for Palestine in 1935. Her mother’s family was killed by the Nazis.
  • After the war, Miriam returned to Vilna to find her relatives. Noone was there and her house had been burned down. She found a few old friends and together they decided to go to Palestine.
  • They went to Poland, Hungary, Austria and trekked through the Alps on foot to reach Italy. They could not get papers to go to Palestine.
  • Miriam and her husband came to the U.S and settled in Peoria, IL.