• Born on January. 18, 1927 in a small village in Bucovina, Romania, by the name of Carlibaba. When I was about five years old we moved to Valea lui Mihai, a town of about 10,000 people located approximately 20 miles from the city of Oradea Mare, which was estimated to have 150,000 inhabitants.
  • My father kept a leather goods shop, and also sold leather and sole material to shoemaker
  • Family consisted of five children, three girls, Lotte, Rose and Regina in that order. I was the 4th, and in 1936 my brother Pinchas was born.
  • September,1940--the Hungarian government took over the part of Romania where we were living (Transylvania) and, as a member of the Axis powers, began to introduce draconian laws aimed at the Jews.
  • Age fifteen I was drafted to go to forced labor two days per week. All schools and institutions of higher learning were closed to Jews, as were many types of industry and commerce. My two older sisters, who were no longer permitted to continue school, went to Budapest and learned dressmaking, as well as other useful skills.
  • Around Passover of 1944 rumors started proliferating that very soon we would have to leave our homes, and live in a ghetto. At that point in time nobody knew, or had even heard of any extermination camps or what had actually been taking place in Poland. Approximately two weeks after Passover, as predicted, we were all ordered to gather by the railroad station, and we were taken en masse to a ghetto in Oradea Mare. There they forced us to set up domicile in a large former lumberyard that was built on 2 levels. All the families were allotted a certain amount of space, and were separated from others by sheets, for privacy. After about 4 weeks of living in the lumberyard, we were again gathered at the train station. This time we were all placed in closed cattle cars and began a three-day journey to Auschwitz.
  • When we arrived there the men were separated from the women. My mother and younger brother were sent to the gas chambers, and my sisters were selected for work detail. My father and I wound up together in one of the barracks. We spent only two weeks in Auschwitz.
  • From there we were taken to Buchenwald.
  • After 2-3 weeks there they took us to Zeitz, a labor camp. In October, some of us were sent back to Buchenwald.
  • In the period between October 1944 and May 1945 I was in the following camps, for various period of times: Sachsenhausen, Oranienburg, Ohrdruf, Neu Brandenburg, Ravensbruck and Ludwigslust.
  • In January of 1945, I was separated from my father during transit between two of the camps and never saw him thereafter. I was liberated from Ludwigslust in May of 1945 by the American army. After finding my three sisters in one of the DP camps we decided to return home to see whom, if anybody, survived. Over the course of our travels my oldest sister met her boyfriend from before the camps, and they got married. My second sister Rose got engaged at Lotte's wedding, and was married a few months later. Regina then went to live with Lotte and her husband.
  • I had been in business, selling leather in order to support the family. Now that everyone else was on able to support themselves I closed the business, and went to Budapest, where I joined the Jewish underground. Eventually I was sent to Prague by my leader, and there continued my work of "procuring" various documents to help many people, including American Jewish boys go to Palestine, because the British did not permit any Jews to enter.
  • I continued to work there until mid May 1948. At that time, having fabricated a Canadian Immigrant visa I sailed for Canada. I arrived in the city of Toronto on June 5, 1948. In 1955 I met my wife in Baltimore, Md., and we got married in October of the same year.