• Born in 1931 in Bohorodczany, Ukraine also called Brodshin.
  • Escaped shtetl on June 28, 1941 after Hitler declares war on Soviets.
  • Escaped on horse and buggy in middle of night.
  • Fled to the east, always 20 km ahead of German army
  • Find refuge in Kazakhstan for 4 years.
  • After war, try to return to Poland and eventually arrive in Lvov. Told
    that entire shtetl of Brodshin was wiped out and that Ukrainians were
    still killing many Jews who were returning to their towns.
  • Arrive in DP camps in Austria: Ranshofen and Ebelsberg.
  • In 1951, arrive in U.S on SS Muir.