• Born April 17, 1924 in Chrzanow, Poland.
  • Had one sister and one brother.
  • Father owned a shoe store where Fran and her mother used to help out.
  • Fran was a student before the war broke out. She attended public school in the mornings until 2:00 pm, and then would learn in Bais Yakov in the afternoon.
  • When the Nazis came into Chrzanow in 1939, they turned the town into a ghetto. Jews faced difficult conditions and Fran never knew whether the men would return from their daily, back-breaking and demeaning labor.
  • All of the Jewish stores were “Aryanized”, taken over by the Nazis. Fran’s parents were no longer allowed to work in their store, and the Nazis placed a Ukrainian woman in charge. Fran worked as the salesperson in the store.
  • The ghetto was liquidated on February 18, 1943. Everyone over 45 was sent directly to Auschwitz, while younger Jews were sent to labor camps.
  • Fran and her brother were in hiding at their uncle’s apartment during the liquidation. The Nazis came in the middle of the night and took everyone away, but didn’t find Fran, who was hiding under the bed. She was essentially the only Jew left in the ghetto.
  • Fran was sent by the Nazis to a women’s labor camp, the Grushwitz factory (was in Germany at the time, now it’s in Poland). In this labor camp, conditions were harsh and terrible, with very little food.
  • By the end of 1944, the Nazis took all of the women in this camp on a Death March through harsh winter conditions. Fran was forced to walk for five weeks in the snow, without proper shoes and clothing. The Death March wound up in cattle cars headed for Bergen-Belsen.
  • Fran arrived in Bergen-Belsen in March 1945 and experienced the terrible conditions there.
    On April 19, 1945, the British liberated Bergen-Belsen.
  • Fran was sick with typhus and was taken to a clinic. After her stay in the clinic, she ended up in a DP camp.
  • She met her husband in this DP camp and they came to America in April 1947, one of the early arrivals of Holocaust survivors in the United States.
  • Fran and her brother were in hiding at their uncle’s apartment during the liquidation. The Nazis came in the middle of the night and took everyone away, but didn’t find Fran, who was hiding under the bed. She was essentially the only Jew left in the ghetto.
  • Fran has three children and grandchildren.
  • She has written a book titled “A Vow Fulfilled”, a book about emunah.

 

Zamosc, Poland

 

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0021_0_21390.html

 

 

Tomaszow-Lubelski

 

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0020_0_19937.html

 

Hitler and Stalin -- non-aggression pact

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molotov%E2%80%93Ribbentrop_Pact

 

Jews escape to Siberia

 

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005470

 

DP Camps

 

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/dptoc.html

December DPs

Displaced Persons - Yad Vashem

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/

http://www1.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%206273.pdf