• Born January 2, 1934 in Debrecen, Hungary.
  • Grew up in Budapest where family owned a general store.
  • Father drafted into Hungarian army and sent to a labor camp. Later sent to Mauthausen.
  • In 1944, Nazis invade and Jews forced to wear yellow armbands.
  • Mother taken to sew uniforms for German soldiers. Told to report to brickyard on Nov. 7, 1944.
  • Barbara, who was 10 years old, never saw her mother again.
  • Barbara, her two siblings and two cousins lived in “yellow star houses” (designated Jewish housing) with their grandmother.
  • One morning, the Arrow Cross knocked on the door and told them they had one hour to report to the courtyard. From there, they were forced into a ghetto.
  • Barbara’s grandmother would sneak out, covering her yellow star with a shawl, to try and get food for the 5 children.
  • She was once discovered by the Arrow Cross but was allowed to return home.
  • Budapest was liberated by Russian troops in 1945. Barbara’s father returned from Mauthausen.
  • Family waited for their mother to return. She never did.
  • Barbara’s brother had to go to a sanitarium for two years to recover from undernourishment that had harmed his lungs.
  • Family was helped by HIAS in post war Hungary.
  • Remained in Hungary until the Russian/Hungarian Revolution in 1956.
  • Barbara, her sister, brother and a cousin escaped by train to the Austrian border.
  • Russian soldiers shot at them and they hid in a cornfield.
  • Their father stayed in Hungary to protect his children.
  • If the neighbors had seen their empty apartment, they would have alerted Russian soldiers about their escape.
  • Barbara and siblings arrived in U.S. January, 1957.